In 1959, when the former British colony of The Crown of Singapore gained autonomy, it took over the Malay style of Yang di-Pertuan Negara (literally means “head of state” in Malay) for its governor (the head of state remained the British monarch). The second and final holder, Yusof bin Ishak, retained the style on 31 August 1963 unilateral declaration of independence and, after 16 September 1963, accession to Malaysia as a state (now as a constituent part of the Federation, a non-sovereign level). After his expulsion from Malaysia on 9 August 1965, Singapore became a sovereign republic of the Commonwealth and installed Yusof bin Ishak as its first president. A presidential system is a system of government in which an executive is led by a president who acts both as head of state and as head of government. In such a system, this branch is separate from the legislator, of which he is not competent and which he cannot refuse under normal circumstances. Presidential systems are a remarkable feature of constitutions in America, including constitutions in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico and Venezuela; This is generally attributed to the strong influence of the United States in the region, as the U.S. Constitution served as an inspiration and model for the Latin American wars of independence in the early 19th century. For example, according to the Constitution of the Kingdom of Italy of 1848, the Statuteo Albertino – the parliamentary approval of the government appointed by the king – was common, but was not prescribed by law. Italy therefore had a de facto code: the lat was promoted to the code: the parliamentary system, but a de jure code: lat was promoted to the code: the “presidential” system.
Note: the head of state in a “presidential” system must not have the title of “president” – the name of the system refers to any head of state who actually governs and who is not directly dependent on the legislative power to remain in office. In Catholicism, the pope was once the first sovereign pope and head of state of politically important papal states. After the Italian association, the pope remains the head of state of Vatican City. In addition, the Bishop of Urgell is one of the two co-princes of Andorra. In the Church of England, the reigning monarch is the defender of the faith and is the supreme governor of the Church of England, although this is a purely symbolic role. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is normally a person other than the head of government. This goes against a presidential system in a democracy where the head of state is often also head of government, and above all: the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislative branch. The parliamentary system may be confronted with a presidential system that operates within the framework of a stricter separation of powers, since the executive is not part of the parliamentary or legislative body and is not appointed by it.